MLA is a citation format created by the Modern Language Association. It is used for research papers in many college classes, including English. MLA updated their guidelines to version 8. Citation makers, database citations, catalog citations may still be using MLA 7. It will be up to you to update the citation before turning in your bibliographies.
In-text parenthetical citations: Whenever you use a quotation, a paraphrase, or a summary, you should give the author’s last name (or the title if no author is included) in parentheses; you should also add the page number if you’re using a printed source. A parenthetical source might look like this for an author (Hammond 42) or like this for a title (MLA Handbook 58).
Works Cited entry:
Perry, Kate. “Picketing Firefighter Makes Few Friends.” Times Union [Albany, NY], 10 Nov.
2006: pp. B3+.
(The abbreviation for page or pages (p. or pp.) is needed on the Works Cited page but not for parenthetical/in-text citations.)
Parenthetical/In-text citation: (Perry B3).
Introduce the material being cited with a signal phrase that includes the author’s name. Example: HVCC librarian Mary Ellen Bolton points out that students who do not use libraries often find frustration in their research efforts (74). Otherwise, provide the author’s last name and a page number in parentheses. No comma is used. Example: (Bolton 74).
For sources with no author listed, use a shortened version of the title of the work. Titles of books are italicized; titles of articles are put in quotation marks.
Book (one author):
Mallon, Thomas. Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism.Ticknor and Fields, 1989.
Book (more than one author):
Lathrop, Ann, and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era. Libraries Unlimited, 2000.
Book (three or more authors)
Cunningham, Stewart, et al. Media Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
Book with no author listed (start with the title):
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 8th ed. Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
An Essay, Poem, or Short Story in an Anthology:
Crews, Harry. “Why I Live Where I Live.” The Short Prose Reader, 12th ed., edited by Gilbert H. Muller and Harvey S.
Wiener. McGraw-Hill, 2009. pp. 307-10.
Article from an encyclopedia (if no author is listed, start with the title):
Cooper, John M. “Socrates.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward Craig, vol. 9. Routledge, 1998.
E-book (from the Web):
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Cassell, 1852. Project Gutenberg, 2015, www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/203.
E-book (from a library database or catalog):
Schmid, David. Natural Born Celebrities: Serial Killers in American Culture, U of Chicago P, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Article from a journal (if no author is listed, start with the title):
Giaquinto, Richard A. “Instructional Issues and Retention of First-Year Students.” Journal of
College Student Retention, vol. 11, no. 2, 2009-2010, pp. 267-85.
Article from a magazine (if no author is listed, start with the title):
Posnanski, Joe. “The Running Back, the Cheerleader, and What Came after the Greatest College
Football Game Ever.” Sports Illustrated, 28 Dec. 2009, pp. 58-64.
Article from a newspaper (if no author is listed, start with the title):
Nearing, Brian. “State Energy Plan: Less Is More.” Times Union [Albany, NY] 16 Dec. 2009, pp. D1-D2.
Journal article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title):
Rice, D. Talbot. “Byzantine Pottery.” Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 59, no. 1, 1939, pp. 138-39. JSTOR,
Newspaper article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title):
“Lizzie Borden Is Acquitted.” The New York Times (1857-1922), 21 June 1893, p. 1, ProQuest. search.proquest.com.
Article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title):
Trumbull, Mark, and Cristinas Maza. "'Fight for $15' Protests: Why They're about More than Fast-food
Wages." Christian Science Monitor, 15 Apr. 2015, Opposing Viewpoints in Context, ic.galegroup.com.
Article (with a digital object identifier number) from a database:
Ohman, Arne, and Susan Mineka. "Fears, Phobias, and Preparedness: Toward an Evolved Module of Fear and Fear
Learning." Psychological Review, vol. 108, no. 3, 2001. Academic OneFile, doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.108.3483.
Citing an article from a web site (if no author is listed, start with the title):
Smith, Kelsey Anne.“Increase in Plagiarism among College Students Thought to Be Caused by Technology.” The Guardian:
Wright State University Newspaper, 10 Jan. 2013, www.theguardianonline.com/news/2013/01/10/
Citing a web page (if no author is listed, start with the title):
“Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22 June 2016,
Million Dollar Baby. Directed by Clint Eastwood. Performances by Hilary Swank, Clint Eastwood, and
Morgan Freeman. Warner Brothers, 2004.