|Chicago Manual of Style is often used for History classes. The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. The Chicago Manual of Style is now in the 16th edition.|
Example of a Bibliography entry:
Giaquinto, Richard A. “Instructional Issues and Retention of First-Year Students.” Journal of College Student Retention 11, no. 2 (2009-2010): 267-285.
Example of a Notes entry for the same source:
Examples of subsequent Notes entries for the same source when it is used again later in the paper (presented in an abbreviated form):
14. Giaquinto, “Instructional Issues,” 268.
15. Ibid., 270.
When you document your sources using the Chicago Manual of Style, you have to use numbers within the body of your paper to refer readers to the Notes page and the Bibliography page at the end of your paper. The numbers are placed immediately after a quotation, a paraphrase, or a summary and are raised above the regular text by using superscript.
Notes: On the Notes page, you need to list all your sources in the order in which you use them. The first time you use a source, you should include all the information about the author, title, and publication information, but for subsequent uses of the same source, you can use a shortened format. If you refer to the same source in consecutive references, you can use the abbreviation “Ibid,” which is Latin for “the same place.”
Bibliography: A bibliography page is an alphabetical listing (by author, or by title if no author is listed) of all your sources. The information listed includes the following: the author (last name, first name); the title (in italics for a long work like a book or a movie and in quotation marks for a short work like an article, a poem, or a short story) with capital letters for all key words; and the publication information (which varies somewhat from one source to another.
Note, too, that entries for the Notes page and the Bibliography page are single spaced with double spacing between the entries. Some common examples are listed below with the Note entry first (with a number preceding it) followed by the Bibliography entry.
Book with organization as author
University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. (Bibliography)
Book by one author
Mallon, Thomas, Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism. New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1989. (Bibliography)
Book by two or more authors
Lathrop, Ann, and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2000. (Bibliography)
Article from a newspaper (if no author is listed, start with the title)
Nearing, Brian. “State Energy Plan: Less Is More.” Times Union (Albany, NY), December 16, 2009. (Bibliography)
Article from a magazine (if no author is listed, start with the title)
Posnanski, Joe. “The Running Back, the Cheerleader, and What Came after the Greatest College Football Game Ever.” Sports Illustrated, December 28, 2009, 58-64. (Bibliography)
Article from a journal (if no author is listed, start with the title)
Giaquinto, Richard A. “Instructional Issues and Retention of First-Year Students.” Journal of College Student Retention 11, no. 2 (2009-2010): 267-285. (Bibliography)
Article from a reference book (if no author is listed, start with the title)
Cooper, John M, “Socrates.” Vol. 9, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward Craig. New York: Routledge, 1998. 8-19. (Bibliography)
Article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title)
Woodlief, Wayne. “Op-Ed; Time Heals Biden’s Self-Inflicted Wound.” The Boston Herald, Janaury 26, 2007, 19. http://www.lexisnexis.com. (Bibliography)
Web page (if no author is listed, start with the title)
Harris, Robert. “Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers.” Virtual Salt, March 7, 2002. http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm. (Bibliography)
Million Dollar Baby. Film. Directed by Clint Eastwood. Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers, 2004. (Bibliography)